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BSE in Germany_ December 2000

CEI Logo Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy, Germany

Impact Worksheet, December 2000

Summary: Germany announced on November 26, 2000 the first case of BSE in a native-born cow. Until this time, Germany had declared itself as free of BSE, despite the fact that it had reported 6 prior cases of BSE between 1992 and 1997. However, all previously reported cases were in imported animals.

Although Germany has only about 1% of world cattle stocks, 1998 live cattle exports accounted for 8% of world cattle exports. Approximately 50% of live bovine animals were exported to the Netherlands, and the rest went to other EU countries, including Lebanon, Algeria, Morocco, and Bosnia-Hercegovina. Germany’s exports of beef and veal accounted for 5.5% of world beef and veal exports, and shipments were destined principally to Russia and other EU countries.

In December 1997, the USDA enacted regulations which prohibited the importation of live ruminants and ruminant meat from Germany. These import restrictions also applied to bone meal, blood meal, meat meal, offal, fat, glands, and serum from ruminants .

The US imported no live ruminants from Germany in 1999 or 2000. Imports of a wide variety of miscellaneous animal products were reported during 1999 and 2000. For many of these miscellaneous animal products the species of origin is not specified but, in keeping with current US import restrictions, these products are most likely of swine or poultry origin. Some of the miscellaneous animal products imported are allowed only under restriction, such as for industrial usage. Among the miscellaneous animal product imports reported is fetal bovine serum. Imports of fetal bovine serum from Germany would have been a violation of APHIS regulations. It is possible that these imports represent imports of some other product miscoded as fetal bovine serum. CEI will follow up with the Department of Commerce to verify any imports which should not have entered the country.

How extensive is the situation in the affected country and what was the country’s disease status prior to the outbreak?

Germany announced on November 26, 2000 the first case of BSE in a native-born cow. The animal was a normal slaughter animal and was tested as part of a private program by the slaughterhouse. The initial positive test was subsequently confirmed by the German BSE Reference Center. The cow, born in 1996, came from a breeding herd of 167 animals in the state of Schleswig-Holstein.

Until this time, Germany had declared itself as free of BSE. Although Germany has had 6 prior cases of BSE between 1992 and 1997, all of these were in imported animals.

As a result of the current case, Germany immediately imposed a ban on the use of animal feeds containing meat and bone meal.

Source: OIE; Reuters; ProMED

What is the country’s production and trade in affected animals and animal products?

Although Germany has only about 1% of world cattle stocks, 1998 live cattle exports accounted for 8% of world cattle exports (Table A). About half of live cattle exports went to the Netherlands. The remainder were exported to other EU countries, as well as to Lebanon, Algeria, Morocco, and Bosnia-Hercegovina . Production and trade in live sheep and goats are minor, making up less than 1% of world production and trade in these animals.

Table A: Stocks and Trade in Live Animals, Germany

Live Animal

2000 Stocks

Trade

1998 Exports

1998 Imports

Head

% World

Head

% World

Head

% World

Cattle

14,574,000

735,638

167,666

Sheep

2,290,000

69,652

62,438

Goats

114,000

36

349

Germany’s exports of beef and veal accounted for 5.5% of world beef and veal exports in 1998 (Table B). Primary importers of German beef and veal were Russia and other EU countries. German exports of sheep and goat meat are negligible in terms of world trade in these products.

Table B: Production and Trade in Relevant Products, Germany

Products

2000 Production, provisional

Trade

1998 Exports

1998 Imports

Metric ton

% World

Metric ton

% World

Metric ton

% World

Beef and veal

1,420,000

376,985

211,279

3.2%

Mutton and lamb

44,000

1,800

40,984

4.9%

Goat meat

270

2

131

0.4%

Note: Sheep and goats were included here as ‘affected’ animals because APHIS has included all ruminants and ruminant products in restrictions pertaining to BSE.

Sources: UN Food and Agriculture Organization; USDA FAS Attache Report, 7/25/2000

Did the US have restrictions on ruminant imports from Germany prior to the current case?

In December 1997, APHIS prohibited the importation of live ruminants and most ruminant products from all of Europe until a thorough assessment of the risks of introduction of BSE into the US could be made. Prior to December 1997, import restrictions were applied only to those countries which had reported cases of BSE in native animals. In addition, the importation of ruminant meat from BSE-affected countries was permitted if the meat was deboned and free of visually identifiable lymphatic and nervous tissue and if it met other restrictions. The import regulations enacted in December 1997 extended the import restrictions to countries that had not had a declared case of BSE, yet had high risk factors for the occurrence of BSE. Germany was among the countries considered to have high risk factors. These regulatory changes also removed the provisions which allowed the importation of ruminant meat from the restricted countries, essentially prohibiting the importation of ruminant meat from all of Europe. These import restrictions also applied to bone meal, blood meal, meat meal, offal, fat, glands, and serum from ruminants .

Source: APHIS, VS

What are the US imports of affected animals or animal products from the country?

In accordance with the 1997 ban on the importation of live ruminants and most ruminant products including meat from Europe, the World Trade Atlas data show no such imports from Germany in 1999 or 2000. There were, however, a wide variety of miscellaneous animal products imported during this time period, including fetal bovine serum (Table C). It should be noted that many of the items listed in Table C are animal products not specifically identified as to their species of origin. They are most likely of swine or poultry origin and thus allowed into the US since they are of no risk regarding introduction of BSE. In addition, some of the items listed (e.g. gelatin and animal glues) are allowed into the US under restriction, such as for industrial usage. Dairy products and animal fat products have not been included in Table C since those products are unlikely sources of BSE. Imports of fetal bovine serum from Germany would have been a violation of APHIS regulations. It is possible that these imports represent imports of some other product miscoded as fetal bovine serum. CEI will follow up with the Department of Commerce to verify any imports which should not have entered the country.

Table C: US Imports of Animals or Products from Germany, 1999-2000 (includes some animal products whose origin is unspecified)

(NESOI = not elsewhere specified or included)

Product

QUANTITY

Jan - Sep 2000

1999

1. MISC. ANIMAL PRODUCTS

Soups, Broths, and Other Preparations

821,881 kg

2,138,530 kg

Sausages and Similar Products of Meat, Meat Offal or Blood, NESOI, Food Preparations Based on These Products, Canned

0

41,618 kg

Guts, Bladders and Stomachs of Animals Other than Fish not Prepared for Use as Casings

1,940 kg

7,480 kg

Guts,Bladders and Stomachs of Animals Except Hogs and Fish for Use as Casings

82, 475 kg

47, 463 kg

2. ANIMAL FEED PREPARATIONS

Dairy Cows , Prep

0

2 tons

Dog and Cat Food, Retail

277,123 kg

181,971 kg

Other Livestock Feed Prep

0

2 tons

Mixed Feeds or Mixed Feed Ingredients used in Animal Feedings, NESOI

5,640 tons

437 tons

Preparations of a Kind Used in Animal Feeding, NESOI

72,777 kg

133,134 kg

3. PHARMACEUTICAL PRODUCTS

Organ Extracts of Glands or Other Organs or of their Secretions

892 kg

8,680 kg

Organ Extracts Other Glands and Other Organs, Dried, Whether or not Powdered

801 kg

3,600 kg

Fetal Bovine Serum

94 kg

60 kg

Other Blood Fractions, NESOI

52,169 kg

42,804 kg

Cantharides; Glands, Except Pancreas, Organs and Other Animal Products Used in the Preparation of Pharmaceutical Products, Fresh, Chilled, Frozen, Preserved

23,619 kg

2,775 kg

Bile and Other Animal Secretions

0

300 kg

Peptones, Other Proteins &Derivates, Hide Powder

244,554 kg

242,799 kg

Enzymes, Prepared Enzymes NESOI

699,853 kg

1,667,370 kg

Albumines, Albuminates and Other Albumin Derivates, NESOI

373,892 kg

258, 440 kg

Inedible Gelatin, and Animal Glue

0

23,255 kg

Gelatin and Gelatin Derivates, Other Glues of Animal Origin,

Except Caesin Glues

172, 287 kg

247,364 kg

Medicaments Containing Adrenal Cortical Hormones but Not Containing Antibiotic

20,788 kg

52,341 kg

Medicaments Containing Antigens or Hyaluronic Acid

71 kg

4,109 kg

Sterile Surgical Catgut

65 kg

3,644 kg

Source: World Trade Atlas, US Dept. of Commerce

What is the level of passenger traffic arriving in the United States from the affected country?

A total of 3.3 million passengers arrived in the US on direct flights from Germany in 1998, although many of these passengers would not have originated in Germany . As part of APHIS-PPQ’s Agriculture Quarantine Inspection Monitoring, 8,247 air passengers from Germany were inspected for items of agricultural interest. Of these, 198, or 2.3%, were found to be carrying a total of 304 kg of items that could potentially present a risk for BSE. Thirty (30) of the passengers with items reported plans to visit or work on a farm or ranch while in the US. Reported destination states of these 30 passengers were CA, CO, DE, FL, LA, MT, OH, VA, and WY.

Source: US Department of Transportation, and APHIS-PPQ Agricultural Quarantine Inspection data base

CEI’s plans for follow-up:

Aside from any follow-up to verify the accuracy of import data, CEI has no further plans regarding this case. However, if you would like additional information, please contact Chris Kopral at (970) 490-7819 or Milo Muller at (970) 490-7844.



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