Summary: African swine fever (ASF) in Botswana was reported to the OIE on July 13, 1999. This outbreak was initially detected on the 4th of June and has involved only one farm to date. Botswana plays a negligible role in the international marketplace for swine and swine products. No live swine or pork products at risk for transmitting ASF were imported into the U.S. during the period from January 1997 until May 1999. The risk from this outbreak to U.S. swine population and trade is negligible at this time.
How extensive is the situation in the affected country and what was the country's disease status prior to the outbreak?
ASF was reported to the OIE by the Director of Animal Health and Production in Botswana on July 13, 1999. This outbreak was initially detected on the 4th of June, and to date, only one farm has reported illness. Diagnosis was made by clinical signs and laboratory testing.
The location of infection is on a commercial cattle producing farm in Sterglingh, Tuli Block, Botswana. On this farm there were 40 susceptible pigs, of which 36 became ill with 100% case mortality rate. The four remaining pigs were destroyed. The suspected source of the outbreak was the commingling of domestic pigs and warthogs through a broken fence. There are no immediately adjacent pig farms. Control measures have included restriction of pig movement into and out of the infected farm. The USDA does not consider Botswana, or any country in Africa, to be free of ASF.
Source: OIE Disease Information Report
What is the country's place in the international market for affected animals and animal products?
During 1998, Botswana produced less than .01% of worldwide pig meat production, and less than .01% of worldwide pig production.
Source: United Nations FAO
What is the country's production and trade in affected animals and animal products?
Botswana's swine herd during the years 1997 and 1998 consisted of 3,500 and 4,000 swine respectively. Botswana slaughtered approximately 11,000 swine and produced approximately 550 metric tons of pig meat annually.
During the years 1996 and 1997 (latest year for which data is available), Botswana imported more pigs and pig meat than they exported. During 1996 and 1997, a reported 7,841 pigs were imported for each of those years. There were no reported exported pigs. Botswana imported 899 metric tons, and exported only 3 metric tons of pig meat annually during 1996 and 1997.
Source: United Nations FAO
What are the U.S. imports of affected animals or animal products from the country?
No live swine or high risk pork products were legally imported into the U.S. during the period from January 1997 until May 1999. There is a report of 65 kg of dead animal product, unspecified, and not fit for human consumption (code 0511994050) imported into the U.S. in 1999. This does not represent very much material, and there is a low likelihood it is of pig origin.
Source: World Trade Atlas, May 1999
What is the level of passenger traffic arriving in the United States from the affected country?
Travel between the U.S. and Botswana is minimal. For 1996, the World Tourism Organization reported 1,555 tourists from Botswana to the U.S. and just over 14,000 U.S. tourists to Botswana. The Agricultural Quarantine Inspection Monitoring Program conducted by USDA, APHIS, PPQ found 0 of 2 sampled airline passengers arriving in the U.S. from Botswana in fiscal year 1998 to be carrying animal products.
While ASF is not known to infect humans, the viral agent has a high survival rate despite adverse environmental conditions and therefore has a moderate risk of being mechanically transmitted by visitors from Botswana to the U.S., or returning residents. African Ornithodoros spp ticks have been identified as the reservoir for ASF, and Ornithodoros coriaceus, indigenous to the U.S., is capable of viral transmission. For these reasons, it is important to note visitor traffic between the two countries.
Source: World Tourism Organization: 1998 Yearbook of Tourism Statistics, USDA-APHIS: AQI Data, USDA-APHIS-CEAH: Potential for International Travelers to Transmit Foreign Animal Diseases to US Livestock or Poultry.
Risk to the U.S. swine population due to this outbreak is negligible at this time. No actions are recommended other than awareness of this List A disease outbreak.
CEI's plans for follow up:
CEI has no further plans regarding this outbreak. If you seek more information or wish to comment on this worksheet, please reply to this message or contact Katherine Marshall (970) 490-7801 or Vicki Bridges (970) 490-7822.
Prepared by: Center for Emerging Issues, Centers for Epidemiology and Animal Health