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Foot and Mouth Disease_ Egypt_ 2_17_2006

Foot and Mouth Disease , Egypt

February 17, 2006

Impact Worksheet

Summary

Fifteen outbreaks of foot and mouth disease (FMD) were reported to the OIE on February 15, 2006 by Egypt ’s Organization for Veterinary Services, Ministry of Agriculture. The outbreaks took place in eight of Egypt ’s governorates, covering a large portion of north central Egypt . At the time of the OIE report, 7,300 cattle and buffalo were affected and 411 animal deaths were reported. Preliminary tests indicated that the causal virus could be exotic strains ‘A’ or ‘SAT2’. Disease control measures being implemented include premises quarantine, disinfection, and animal movement restrictions. A vaccination program using polyvalent vaccine will be undertaken. FMD was last reported in Egypt in June of 2000.

Egypt ’s stocks of FMD-susceptible animals totaled about 17.7 million head in 2005. Sheep comprised the largest of susceptible herd populations with over 5.1 million head, followed by cattle (4.5 million), goats (4 million), and buffalo (3.9 million). Beef and buffalo meat comprised most of Egypt ’s meat production in 2005. T he majority of the animal product that the US imported from Egypt during 2004 and 2005 was cheese and curd, which amounted to about 224 thousand kilograms in 2005. The remaining US animal product imports from Egypt during 2005 were milk-based butter and oils, animal offal, and edible fats and oil mixtures. The US did not import any relevant live animals from Egypt in 2004 or 2005.

The USDA does not consider Egypt to be free of FMD. Meat and dairy products are allowed to be imported from countries and regions of countries that are not considered FMD-free if the products are prepared or processed in a manner as specified in Federal Regulations and under certain import restrictions. Upon meeting these conditions and regulations, the risk of FMD transmission is mitigated.

How extensive is foot and mouth disease (FMD) in Egypt and what was Egypt ’s disease status prior to the outbreak?

On February 15, 2006 , the Organization for Veterinary Services, Ministry of Agriculture ( Cairo, Egypt ) reported the existence of FMD in Egypt . A total of fifteen outbreaks were reported in the following governorates: Alexandria , Behera, Cairo , Dakahlia, Dumyat , Fayum, Ismailia , and Menofia. The outbreaks occurred in cattle and buffaloes and affected more than 7,300 animals, resulting in 411 deaths. The affected herds contained more than 12,000 susceptible animals. The disease event started on January 22, 2006 and was first confirmed on February 12, 2006 at two national laboratories. Preliminary tests indicated that the causal virus could be an exotic strain (A or SAT2). Samples will be sent to an OlE reference laboratory for confirmation of viral serotype and subtype. Officials are investigating potential sources of the outbreaks. Disease control measures being implemented include premises quarantine, disinfection, and halting of animal movements to and from affected properties. A vaccination program using polyvalent vaccine will be undertaken. FMD was last reported in Egypt in June of 2000.

Source: OIE Disease Information Report

What is Egypt ’s place in the international market for affected animals and animal products?

Egypt ’s stocks of FMD-susceptible animals totaled about 17.7 million head in 2005 (Table 1). Sheep comprised the largest of these herd populations with over 5.1 million head, followed by cattle (4.5 million), goats (4 million), and buffalo (3.9 million). In addition to these species, Egypt also has smaller numbers camels and pigs. Egypt holds about 2.3% of the world’s domesticated buffalo stocks and less than 1% of the remaining stocks represented on Table 1. Herd populations of these animal stocks remained fairly stable between 2004 and 2005.

Egypt produces milk from cows, buffaloes, goats, and sheep. Cow and buffalo milk represent the majority of Egypt ’s milk output, amounting to a combined 4.6 million metric tons in 2005 (Table 1). Egypt produced 3% of the world’s buffalo milk in 2005 and about 1% or less of the world’s cow, goat, and sheep milk. Beef and buffalo meat, at 590 thousand metric tons combined, made up most of Egypt’s meat production in 2005, followed by sheep/goat, camel, and pig meat. With 40,000 metric tons of camel meat production, Egypt represented over 13% of the world total for this category in 2005.

During 2004, Egypt exported a relatively small number of live sheep and goats (Table 2). Egypt ’s sheep exports during 2003 amounted to over 12.2 thousand head with a value of almost $350,000, however by 2004 its exports of live sheep had dropped to 254 head. Although, Egypt exports a relatively small number of live goats, its live goat exports increased by 40% over the 2003 to 2004 period. Beef and veal products are by far Egypt ’s largest meat exports and, in 2004, amounted to 680 metric tons with a value of $687,000. Sheep and goat meat exports in 2004 were about 100 metric tons and were valued at $60,000. In addition to meat exports,

Egypt exported 13.3 and 14.4 thousand metric tons of bovine dairy products, respectively, during 2003 and 2004 at a combined value of about 33.5 million dollars. Egypt also exported hides, skin, and wool, primarily of sheep and goats, in value of about 1.2 million dollars during 2004. All of Egypt ’s animal product exports during 2004 comprised less than 0.1% of world exports.

Table 1: Animal Stocks and Production, Egypt , 2004 and 2005

Stocks

2004

2005

Stocks

(1,000 head)

Stocks

(1,000 head)

% of World Stocks

Buffalos

Cattle

Camels

Sheep

Goats

Pigs

Production

Production

(1,000 metric tons)

Production

(1,000 metric tons)

% of World Production

Cow Milk, Whole, Fresh

Buffalo Milk

Goat Milk

Sheep Milk

Beef /Veal

Buffalo Meat

Camel Meat

Sheep/Goat Meat

Pig Meat

Cattle Hides, Fresh

Buffalo Hides, Fresh

Sheep/Goat Skins, Fresh

Wool, Greasy


Table 2: Exports of live animal and animal products, Egypt , 2003 - 2004

Exports

2003

2004

% of World in 2004

Quantity

(# head or mt)

Value

(1000 $)

Quantity

(# head or mt)

Value

(1000 $)

Quantity

Value

Live animals

Camel (hd)

Sheep (hd)

Goat (hd)

Fresh, Chilled, Frozen or Prepared Meat Products, Offal

Cattle (mt)

Sheep/Goat (mt)

Pig (mt)

Offal (mt)

Dairy

Bovine dairy products (mt)

Hides, skins, wool and hair

Bovine (mt)

Sheep/Goat (mt)

Source: United Nations FA O

What are the US imports of affected animals or animal products from Egypt ?

The US did not import any relevant live animals from Egypt in 2004 or 2005. During 2004 and 2005, the majority of the animal products that the US imported from Egypt consisted of cheese and curd and amounted to about 224 thousand kilograms in 2005 (Table 3). The remaining US imports from Egypt during these two years were comprised of milk-based butter and oils, animal offal, and edible fats and oil mixtures. US imports of products in the categories of ‘butter, oils from milk’ and ‘edible fats and oil mixtures’ increased substantially between 2004 and 2005. In addition to the items on Table 3, the US imported from Egypt about 20 sq. meters of processed bovine hide during 2004. The combined value of imported animal products from Egypt during 2005 amounted to about $520,000.

The USDA does not consider Egypt to be free of FMD. Meat and dairy products are allowed to be imported from countries and regions of countries that are not considered FMD-free if the products are prepared or processed in a manner as specified in Federal Regulations and under certain import restrictions. Upon meeting these conditions and regulations, the risk of FMD transmission is mitigated.

Table 3: US imports of animal products from Egypt , 2004 – 2005

Product

2004

2005

Quantity

(kg)

$Value (thousands)

(U.S. dollars)

Quantity

(kg)

$Value (thousands)

(U.S. dollars)

Cheese and curd

Butter, oils from milk

Animal (not fish) guts, bladders, stomachs, and parts

Edible fats and oil mixtures

Source: World Trade Atlas

What are Canada and Mexico ’s imports of affected animals or animal products from Egypt ?

Canada did not import any relevant live animals from Egypt in 2004 or 2005. Canada ’s imports of animal products from Egypt during 2004 and 2005 were limited to relatively small amounts of ‘cheese and curd’ and ‘animal/vegetable fats and oils’ (Table 4). In addition to the items listed in Table 4, Canada imported a very small amount of processed bovine hide from Egypt during 2004.

Mexico did not import live animals or animal products from Egypt during 2004 and 2005.

Table 4: Canadian imports of animal products from Egypt , 2004 – 2005

Product

2004

2005

Quantity

(kg)

$Value

(Canadian dollars)

Quantity

(kg)

$Value

(Canadian dollars)

Cheese and curd (kgm)

Animal/vegetable fats and oils

-

-

Source: World Trade Atlas

What is the level of passenger traffic arriving in the United States from Egypt ?

In 2004, 52,247 air passengers arrived from Egypt on direct flights to the US . This number does not include passengers arriving from Egypt via indirect flights.

As part of APHIS-PPQ’s agriculture quarantine inspection monitoring, 294 air passengers from Egypt were sampled for items of agricultural interest in fiscal year 2004. Seventeen passengers were found to be carrying 23 items of interest. Items of interest include beef (6 kgs), cheese (8 kgs), processed pork (2 kgs), milk (3 kgs), pork, ham (2 kgs) and meat (2 kgs). None of the air passengers sampled for items of agricultural interest were planning to visit a farm or ranch in the United States .

Source: USDA APHIS-PPQ Agricultural Quarantine Inspection databases, US Department of Commerce.

CEI’s plans for follow up:

At this time, CEI will continue to monitor this situation, but has no plans to issue additional reports. If you need more information or if you want to comment on this worksheet, you may reply to this message, or contact Wolf Weber at (970) 494-7222 or Steven Sweeney at (970) 494 -7267 .



Additional Information