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FMD in Uruguay_ October 2000

CEI LogoFoot and Mouth Disease, Uruguay

Impact Worksheet, 27 October 2000


Summary:
Laboratory confirmation of an outbreak of Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD), Type O, in Uruguay was reported by OIE on 27 October 2000. Clinical signs of FMD appeared in cattle and swine on a farm in the northern department of Artigas, about two miles from the border with Brazil. As of 26 October, the outbreak included 29 bovine, 11 swine, and zero ovine. Seven of the swine died, and all other cases were depopulated. Emergency alert measures in Uruguay had been in place since the August 2000 FMD outbreaks in Argentina (type A24) and Brazil (type O). Uruguay is now depopulating all susceptible animals within 5 km of the outbreak.

FMD Uruguay

In 1995, Uruguay had attained internationally recognized FMD-free status which enabled the country to export beef to the US. Uruguay was the world's twelfth largest bovine meat exporter in 1998, and the fifth largest ovine meat exporter. Uruguay suspended its beef exports on 26 October, and the US has put on hold imports of any animal products from Uruguay. National Center for Import/Export is reviewing all import permits for relevant products from Uruguay, to determine which permits should be amended or removed. Until several weeks ago, Uruguay was considered FMD-free and was taking actions to reduce its risk, so it is unlikely that any tainted product was imported to the US before 1 October 2000.

In 1999 and 2000, Puerto Rico apparently received a large percentage of the US beef imports from Uruguay, although the exact percentage is not clear. Estimates produced by the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico for a recent 12-month period (July 1999-June 2000) would indicate that Uruguayan fresh/chilled beef imports to Puerto Rico accounted for over 90 percent of all 1999 US imports of fresh/chilled beef from Uruguay. These data need to be investigated further.

How extensive is the situation in the affected country and what was the country’s disease status prior to the presumptive diagnosis?

An outbreak of Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD), Type O, in Uruguay was reported by OIE on 27 October 2000. Laboratory confirmation (ELISA test) was obtained from the Pan American Foot and Mouth Disease Center in Brazil. Clinical signs of FMD appeared in cattle and swine on one farm in the northern department of Artigas, Chiflero district, within two miles from the border with Brazil. In northern Uruguay, the country shares an extensive dry land border with Brazil; cattle farms in the adjoining countries extend to fences about 90 meters apart, and rural roads are located along and across the border. OIE listed three potential sources of the infection: a sow infected by ingesting feed of animal origin, slaughterhouse waste, or contaminated by-products. The affected operation is located near urban areas.

As of 26 October, the outbreak included 29 bovine, 11 swine, and zero ovine; seven of the swine died, and all the other animals were depopulated. Uruguay has defined an outbreak zone with radius 5 kilometers around the affected operation. Depopulation is planned for all susceptible animals within that zone. As of 26 October, Uruguay had depopulated 995 bovine (of about 1,400 in the outbreak zone); 14 swine (of 361 in the zone), and 735 ovine (of about 4,000 in the zone).

Uruguay had attained internationally recognized FMD-free status in 1995. The US Department of Agriculture considered Uruguay to be FMD-free while recognizing that Uruguay shares a common land border with countries or areas that have not attained FMD-free status. Uruguay suspended beef exports on 26 October, and the USDA has put a hold on any US imports of animal products from Uruguay.

Emergency alert measures in Uruguay had been in place since the August 2000 FMD outbreaks in Argentina (type A24) and Brazil (type O). New FMD cases have also appeared in Paraguay. In addition to depopulating all susceptible animals in the 5 km outbreak zone, control measures implemented since the outbreak include a national health state of emergency declared on 24 October; a total ban on movement of animals and animal products throughout the 4,473-square mile Artigas department; surveillance in Artigas department; testing within 25 km of the affected operation; and control/disinfection posts established on the outbreak zone perimeter.

Source: Promed; AnimalNet; OIE, 27 October 2000; USDA,APHIS trade risk analysts; and Reuters

What is the country’s production and trade in affected animals and animal products?

Uruguay’s livestock inventories in 1999 included 10.7 million head of cattle, mostly high-value Herefords, and 15.5 million head of sheep (Table A). Its sheep stocks accounted for 1.5% of world sheep stocks, which ranked Uruguay 17th in world sheep stocks in 1998. Uruguay exported 125,620 head of cattle which in 1998 accounted for 1.4% of world cattle exports. Uruguay ranked 16th in world cattle exports.

Mexico imported an undetermined number of live dairy cattle annually from Uruguay in recent years. Pre-export quarantine facilities are operated in Uruguay for shipping cattle to Mexico. After the August 2000 FMD outbreak in Argentina, Mexico prohibited all live animal imports from Uruguay. Other destinations for Uruguayan live animal imports were not specified in our data sources.

Table A: Stocks and Trade in Live Animals, Uruguay

Live Animal

1999 Stocks

Trade

1998 Exports

1998 Imports

Head

% World

Head

% World

Head

% World

Cattle

10,700,000

0.8

125,620

1.4

Sheep

15,500,000

1.5

12,003

5

Goats

14,800

Pigs

360,000

1,638

45

Source: UN Food and Agriculture Organization
* Data not available

Uruguay exported 16,792 metric tons of ovine meats in 1998, accounting for 1.9% of world ovine meat exports, and making it the world’s fifth largest ovine meat exporter (Table B). The 119,407 metric tons of exported milk in 1998 made up 1.9 percent of world exports and ranked Uruguay as the 10th largest milk exporter in the world. Uruguay’s 208,723 metric tons of bovine meat exports accounted for 3% of world exports in 1998, which ranked Uruguay as the 10th largest bovine meat exporter.

Table B: Production and Trade in Relevant Products, Uruguay

Products

1999 Production

Trade

1998 Exports

1998 Imports

Metric

ton

% World

Metric ton

% World

Metric ton

% World

Bovine meat

457,700

0.8

208,723

3.0

550

Pig meat

27,000

30

5,172

Ovine meat

51,000

0.7

16,792

1.9

Milk, total

1,209,536

0.2

119,407

1.9

Hides and skins

85,779

0.9

2,245

1,514

Source: UN Food and Agriculture Organization
* Data not available

Since achieving FMD-free status in 1995, Uruguay has exported beef primarily to the European Union (EU); to the US, Mexico, and Canada; and to Israel. The EU annually purchased Uruguayan beef valued at $92 million, and North American Free Trade Agreement countries (US, Mexico, and Canada) purchased beef with a combined value of $88 million. Uruguayan higher-quality beef exports to Japan, Korea, and El Salvador were growing. Brazil and Chile also annually imported smaller quantities of lower-quality Uruguayan beef.

What are the US imports of affected animals or animal products from the country?

US imports from Uruguay have included animal products, but no live cloven-hoofed animals. The top US imports of affected animals or animal products in 1999/2000 included leathers, as well as frozen and fresh bovine meats (see Appendix). The value of US leather imports from Uruguay exceeded $30 million in both 1999 and 2000.

Uruguay has a 20,000 metric ton quota of beef exports to the US at low import duties. The US imported 11,000 metric tons in the first half of 2000, and the US expected that Uruguay would fill its quota by year’s end. Value of US frozen bovine meat imports from Uruguay was approximately $30 million in 1999, and $21 million in 2000. Fresh or chilled bovine meat imports were valued at $13 million in 1999, and $8 million in 2000. See the table in the Appendix for quantity values.

In 1999 and 2000, Puerto Rico apparently received a large percentage of the US beef imports from Uruguay, although the exact percentage is not clear. Estimates produced by the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico for a recent 12-month period (July 1999-June 2000) would indicate that Uruguayan fresh/chilled beef imports to Puerto Rico accounted for over 90 percent of all 1999 US imports of fresh/chilled beef from Uruguay. In July 2000, according to estimates from the Puerto Rico statistics office, Puerto Rico imported a total of 318,708 kg of "beef boneless fresh/chilled" and "bovine animals boneless frozen." Value of these shipments was $927,000. These data need to be investigated further.

Source: World Trade Atlas; Commonwealth of Puerto Rico; APHIS-Veterinary Services Area Office

What is the level of passenger traffic arriving in the United States from the affected country?

A total of 21,097 passengers arrived in the US on direct flights from Uruguay in 1998. This number underestimates the total number of passengers originating in Uruguay because some passengers travel to the US on indirect flights.

As part of APHIS-PPQ’s agriculture quarantine inspection monitoring, 147 air passengers from Uruguay were sampled for items of agricultural interest in fiscal 1999. One of these passengers carried 1 kg of a restricted item, pork/ham, that could potentially harbor the FMD virus. This passenger reported no plans to visit or work on a ranch or farm while in the US.

Source: US Department of Transportation, and APHIS-PPQ Agricultural Quarantine Inspection data base

CEI’s plans for follow up: CEI will continue to monitor the Uruguayan situation and FMD activity in the region. Depending on how this outbreak evolves, more information may follow.

If you have questions or comments on this worksheet, contact Ken Geter at (970) 490-7817, or David Cummings at (970) 490-7895.

Appendix : Relevant Animal Products Imported from Uruguay Into the U.S.

1999

2000 (Jan-Aug)

HS Code

Description

$ Value

Quantity (kg)

$ Value

Quantity (kg)

0202305000

MEAT OF BOVINE ANIMALS, BONELESS, EXCEPT PROCESSED, FROZ

0201305000

MEAT OF BOVINE ANIMALS, BONELESS, EX PROCESSED, FRESH/CH

0203

MEAT OF SWINE (PORK), FRESH, CHILLED OR FROZEN

0204

MEAT OF SHEEP OR GOATS, FRESH, CHILLED OR FROZEN

0206

ED OFFAL, BOVINE, SWINE, SHEEP, GOAT, HORSE, ETC.

021020

MEAT, BOVINE ANIMALS, SALTED, IN BRINE, DRD, SMOKD

0405

BUTTER AND OTHER FATS AND OILS DERIVED FROM MILK

0406

CHEESE AND CURD

050400

ANIMAL (NOT FISH) GUTS, BLADDERS, STOMACHS & PARTS

0506

BONES & HORN-CORES, UNWORKED ETC; POWDER & WASTE

0511992000

PARINGS/WASTE OF RAW HIDES/SKINS, GLUE STOCK NESOI

0511994050

ANIMAL PRODUCTS NESOI, DEAD ANIMALS CH 1, INEDIBLE

1505

WOOL GREASE & FATTY SUBSTANCES DERIVED THEREFROM

1601

SAUSAGES, SIMILAR PRDT MEAT ETC FOOD PREP OF THESE

160250

PREPARED OR PRESERVED BOVINE MEAT ETC. NESOI

1602909060

ANMAL MEAT NESOI INCL ALL ANIMAL BLOOD PREPS CANND

1603009010

EXTRACTS AND JUICES OF MEAT

300190

HEPARIN AND ITS SALTS; OTHER HUMAN OR ANIMAL SUBST

3002100040

FETAL BOVINE SERUM (FBS)

4104314000

BOVINE AND EQUINE UPHOLSTERY LEATHER, FULL GRAINS AND GRAIN SPLITS, PARCHMENT-DRESSED OR PREPARED AFTER TANNING

4104318000

BOVINE AND EQUINE LEATHER, NESOI, FANCY, FULL GRAINS AND GRAIN SPLITS, PARCHMENT DRESSED OR PREPARED AFTER TANNING

510111

WOOL, NOT CARDED OR COMBED, GREASY, SHORN

Source: World Trade Atlas, US Dept of Commerce



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