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FMD in South Africa

CEI Logo Foot and Mouth Disease, Republic of South Africa

Impact Worksheet, September 2000

Summary:

On September 17, 2000, the Republic of South Africa reported to the OIE an outbreak of foot and mouth disease (FMD) in the area of the country which has been recognized as free by the OIE and the USDA. The outbreak involves only one farm at this point in time. The source of the outbreak has been traced to swill that was fed to the pigs and was illegally obtained from a foreign ship. This outbreak has been determined to be caused by FMD virus type O and is the first occurrence of this type in South Africa.

South Africa’s inventories of livestock in 1999 included 13.6 million cattle, 28.7 million sheep, 6.5 million goats, and 1.5 million pigs. For cattle, goats, and pigs, these numbers represented 1 percent or less of world stocks. Sheep numbers accounted for 2.7 percent of world stocks. Trade in live animals and products is minimal. It is unlikely that any animals or products that were imported into the US prior to this occurrence were contaminated with FMD virus.

Recommendations at this time include: The only action that appears necessary is an appropriate waiting period to confirm that there has been no spread from this outbreak.

Update:
News reports indicate that FMD has been identified on another farm in South Africa. This second farm is adjacent to the index farm. In response, the South African government is reportedly planning to slaughter more than 3,500 animals on about 18 farms that are in a 3 km radium around the two farms where disease has been confirmed.
Source: Reuters, Agence France Presse English

How extensive is the situation in the affected country and what was the country’s disease status prior to the outbreak?

On September 17, 2000, the Republic of South Africa reported to the OIE an outbreak of foot and mouth disease (FMD) in the area of the country which has been recognized as free by the OIE and the USDA. The outbreak involves only one farm at this point in time. The farm primarily had pigs, but also a few bovine, ovine, and caprine animals. All the animals on the premises were destroyed. The source of the outbreak has been traced to swill that was fed to the pigs and was illegally obtained from a foreign ship in the nearby harbor at Durban. Control measures include quarantine and movement restrictions, as well as a ban on imports of swill.

This outbreak has been determined to be caused by FMD virus type O and is the first occurrence of this type in South Africa. FMD virus activity in Kruger National Park over the past several years has been due to type SAT 1, 2, and 3. A recent outbreak of FMD (reported on September 11, 2000) on a premises within the FMD enzootic zone of the FMD control area, approximately 15 km from Kruger National Park, was caused by virus type SAT 1.

Source: OIE Disease Information Report

FMD South Africa

What is the country’s production and trade in affected animals and animal products?

South Africa’s inventories of livestock in 1999 included 13.6 million cattle, 28.7 million sheep, 6.5 million goats, and 1.5 million pigs (Table A). For cattle, goats, and pigs, these numbers represented 1 percent or less of world stocks. Sheep numbers accounted for 2.7 percent of world stocks. Trade in live animals was generally minimal with the exception of sheep, for which imports accounted for 5.3 percent of total world sheep imports. Live cattle and sheep came primarily from Namibia. Although countries to which live animals were exported were not specified, it is reasonable to assume that they also went to neighboring countries. Trade between countries which are members of the Southern African Customs Union, of which South Africa is a member, is duty-free and is not necessarily recorded.

Table A: Stocks and Trade in Live Animals, South Africa

Live Animals

1999 Stocks

Trade

1998 Exports

1998 Imports

Head

% World

Head

% World

Head

% World

Cattle

13,565,034

1.0

3,800

92,661

1.1

Sheep

28,680,272

2.7

30

865,951

5.3

Goats

6,457,064

0.9

2,100

5

Pigs

1,530,899

0.2

310

0

0

Source: UN Food and Agriculture Organization; USDA-FAS Attache Report

Production of meat, milk, and hides was also generally minor, accounting for about 1 percent or less of world production (Table B). Exports of these products were negligible in terms of world exports. Imports were also minor. Only imports of ovine meat accounted for a moderate percentage of world imports. Beef was imported from Namibia, Botswana, the EU, and Australia; mutton and lamb mainly from Australia; and pork mainly from the EU.

Table B: Production and Trade in Relevant Products, South Africa

Products

1999 Production

Trade

1998 Exports

1998 Imports

Metric ton

% World

Metric ton

% World

Metric ton

% World

Bovine meat

527,000

0.9

4,890

19,907

0.3

Pig meat

117,000

0.1

1,149

7,009

0.1

Ovine meat

138,500

1.2

1,050

35,527

4.1

Milk, total

2,990,000

0.5

160,138

64,065

0.1

Hides and skins, fresh

99,240

1.1

0

0.0

0

0.0

Source: UN Food and Agriculture Organization; USDA-FAS Attache Report

What are the U.S. imports of affected animals or animal products from the country?

Relatively small quantities of animals and animal products that could be at risk for transmission of the FMD virus were imported into the US from South Africa during 1999 and the first half of 2000 (Table C). Survival of the FMD virus in animal products such as cheese and hides varies significantly depending on the processing that the product undergoes. Therefore, depending on the specific processing used on these items, they may or may not indicate a risk.

Table C: US Imports of Relevant Products from South Africa

Product

1999

2000 (Jan - July)

$value (million)

quantity

$value (million)

quantity

live animals, NESOI (0103005080)

0.14

na

0.11

na

Equine*

10

0

wild animals for exhibition for scientific or educational purposes (9810007000)

0.03

na

0.02

na

Zoological animals*

1

16

Unspecified*

4

3

wool, not carded or combed, greasy, shorn (510111)

1.08

na

0.23

na

butter (040510)

1.03

904,923 kg

0

0

cheese, cheddar, nesoi (0406900890)

0.04

20,030 kg

0

0

animal products, NESOI; dead animals, unfit for human consumption (0511994050)

0.06

1,569 kg

0.04

5,050 kg

deer skins, fresh or salted, dried, limed, pickled or otherwise preserved, but not tanned, parchment-dressed, or further prepared (4103900030)

0

5 items

<0.01

6 items

hides and skins of bovine animals, fresh or preserved, but not tanned, parchment-dressed or further prepared (4101)

0.01

508 kg and 22 items

<0.01

19 items

sheep or lamb skins, without wool on, NESOI, fresh, salted, dried, limed or otherwise preserved, but not tanned, parchment-dressed or further prepared (4102290060)

0.03

4188 items

0

0

hides and skins of unspecified species, raw or preserved, but not tanned, parchment dressed or further prepared (0511992000, 4103900090)

0.66

71,012 kg

<0.01

0

nesoi=not elsewhere specified or included na=data not provided

* From USDA,VS records

Source: World Trade Atlas

What is the level of passenger traffic arriving in the United States from the affected country?

A total of 124,242 passengers arrived in the US on direct flights from South Africa in 1998. This number likely underestimates the total number of passengers originating in South Africa because some passengers travel to the US on indirect flights.

As part of APHIS-PPQ’s agriculture quarantine inspection monitoring, 432 air passengers from South Africa were sampled for items of agricultural interest in fiscal 1999. Seventy (70) of these passengers (16%) were carrying a total of 117 kg of restricted items, such as cheese or meat, that could potentially harbor the FMD virus. Two of the passengers with restricted items reported plans to visit or work on a ranch or farm while in the US. The reported destination of these passengers was Texas.

Source: US Dept of Transportation; APHIS-PPQ

CEI’s plans for follow up:

Aside from monitoring the situation, CEI has no plans for follow-up reports. If you seek more information or wish to comment on this worksheet, please reply to this message or contact Vicki Bridges at (970) 490-7822 or Chris Kopral at (970) 490-7819.



Additional Information