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Classical Swine Fever in Croatia

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Classical Swine Fever
Croatia, July 1999
Impact Worksheet






Summary: Croatia recently reported an outbreak of Classical Swine Fever (CSF) on two small private holdings of fattening pigs in the western part of the country bordering Slovenia. Five cases and one death resulted as of 8 July 1999. Control measures reported by Croatia were stamping out, vaccination and movement restrictions in the surrounding area, and other necessary veterinary-sanitary measures. October 1997 was the last reported outbreak of CSF in Croatia. Croatia is a small producer of swine in both the global and European markets. The main suppliers of live swine to Croatia were Hungary and the Czech Republic, and the major suppliers of pig meat were Hungary, Denmark, the Czech Republic, Austria and France. The U.S. imported about $1.6 million worth of swine meat, offal or blood products from Croatia in 1998, plus animal livers and dried soup broth that may have been derived from swine. Passenger travel from Croatia to the U.S. is light.


How extensive is the situation in the affected country and what was the country's disease status prior to the outbreak?

Croatia recently reported an outbreak of Classical Swine Fever (CSF) on two small private holdings of fattening pigs in the western part of the country bordering Slovenia. Estimated date of first infection was 28 June 1999, based on clinical, post-mortem and laboratory diagnoses (ELISA). Nine animals were identified as susceptible in the outbreaks. Five cases and one death resulted as of 8 July. Four pigs were destroyed and none were slaughtered. Control measures reported by Croatia were stamping out, vaccination and movement restrictions in the surrounding area, and other necessary veterinary-sanitary measures. October 1997 was the last reported outbreak of CSF in Croatia. Prior to this 1999 outbreak, USDA did not consider Croatia to be free of the disease.

Source: OIE Disease Information Report, 9 July 1999

What is the country's place in the international market for affected animals and animal products?

Croatia is a small producer of swine and its products in both the global and European pig markets. The country imports $79 million in swine and products, which is relatively small yet significant from a global perspective, while its exports are much smaller and negligible in the world market.

Source: United Nations FAO, and USDA Foreign Agricultural Service

What is the country's production and trade in affected animals and animal products?

During the past 3 years, the number of swine was just under 1.2 million. Meat production in Croatia was between 40,000 and 86,000 metric tons (mt) annually, in the range of small pig meat producers such as Madagascar, New Zealand and Dominican Republic.

Croatia exported 2,414 live swine and imported 51,190 live pigs in 1997. Croatian world trade in pig meat in 1997 appears in the next table.

Croatia, Pig Meat (pork, bacon, ham, sausages and meat preparations)
1997
$Value (million)
Quantity (kg)
Imports
79,452,000
28,633
Exports
20,222,000
6,093

The main suppliers of live swine to Croatia were Hungary and the Czech Republic, and the major suppliers of pig meat were Hungary, Denmark, the Czech Republic, Austria and France. Most exports of live swine and pig meat from Croatia went to Bosnia-Herzegovina.

Source: United Nations FAO, and USDA Foreign Agricultural Service

What are the U.S. imports of affected animals or animal products from the country?

The U.S. imports about $1.6 million worth of swine meat, offal or blood products from Croatia, plus animal livers and dried soup broth that may possibly be derived from swine. Details follow in the next table.

Product
1998
1999 (January-April)
$Value (million)
Quantity (kg)
$Value (million)
Quantity (kg)
Meat, offal, blood, or other of swine, hams, etc. (code 16024 ...)
1.12
394,035
0.17
100,089
Meat, offal, blood, or other of swine, shoulder, etc. (code 160242...)
0.46
219,813
0.08
63,921
Animal livers, other (code 160220...)
0.2
54,058
0.05
13,416
Meat, offal, blood, or other of swine, other (code 160249...)
0
0
0.01
4,080
Pork canned (code 1601002010)
0.06
20,726
0
0
Dried soup broth (code 2104100020)
1.7
627,673
0.61
232,702

Source: World Trade Atlas summary of U.S. Dept. Of Commerce data

In 1998, the U.S. exported to Croatia very small quantities of frozen swine livers (197,000 kg valued at $150,000) and frozen swine, other (22,000 kg valued at $27,000).

What is the level of passenger traffic arriving in the United States from the affected country?

Passenger travel from Croatia to the U.S. is light. Croatian tourists visiting the U.S. accounted for 0.02 percent of global tourists to the U.S. in 1996. There were no nonstop flights from Croatia to the U.S. as of 1997.

The Agricultural Quarantine Inspection Monitoring Program conducted by USDA, APHIS, PPQ found 1 of the 62 sampled airline passengers arriving in the US from Croatia during the period 10/1/97 through 9/30/98 to be carrying a swine product, i.e., one kilogram of ham. The AQI numbers are one indication of the amount of restricted agricultural products (of interest) illegally entering the U.S. via airline passengers. The passenger noted here entered the U.S. at Detroit in January 1998 and self-reported that she/he had no plans to visit or work on a farm or ranch while in the U.S.

Sources: World Tourism Organization, and U.S. Department of Transportation

CEI's interpretation:

Prior to the outbreak, the USDA did not consider Croatia to be free of Classical Swine Fever and the U.S. imported relatively small quantities of processed swine products from Croatia. It is possible that this outbreak in Croatia increases the U.S. risk of importing swine product carrying the viral agent for CSF, however, it is probable that processing has killed the agent. In pork and pork products, the causative viral agent of CSF remains infective for months or years in frozen product.

CEI's plans for follow up:

The CEI does not currently plan to produce more information on this outbreak. If you seek more information or wish to comment on this worksheet, please reply to this message or telephone David Cummings at (970) 490-7895.

Prepared by: Center for Emerging Issues, Centers for Epidemiology and Animal Health



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