Three Management Approaches to Reduce Wildlife Damage
Resource Management includes a variety of practices that may be used by resource owners to reduce their exposure or vulnerability to wildlife damage. Resource management techniques are usually implemented operationally by resource owners.
Resource management techniques include habitat management, animal husbandry techniques (e.g., use of herders, night penning, and shifting breeding schedule), guard animals, modification of agricultural practices (e.g., crop location and rotation, damage resistant crops, timing of planting) and modification of human behavior (e.g., eliminate wildlife feeding and handling, and calm irrational fears of people towards wildlife).
Physical Exclusion methods restrict the access of wildlife to resources. These methods provide effective prevention of wildlife damage in many situations. Physical exclusion methods, though, can sometimes entrap other wildlife species or restrict movements of other animals.
Installation of exclusionary devices must be considered carefully, and their use must include periodic monitoring and maintenance. Physical exclusion methods include “predator-proof” fencing and netting. These can be effective for long-term management in particular situations and are mostly implemented by producers.
Wildlife Management methods and approaches are varied, and the objectives of this approach are to alter the behavior of or repel the target species, remove specific individuals from the population, reduce or suppress local population densities, or control invasive exotic species populations in order to eliminate or reduce the potential for loss or damage to resources.
Wildlife management techniques to reduce predation include visual or auditory stimuli to repel the animals (e.g., the Electronic Guard, propane cannons, pyrotechnics, harassment shooting, lasers, bright lights, and strobe lights), and capture, take or relocation methods (trapping, snaring, shooting, and the use of chemical products and immobilization and euthanasia drugs).
In most areas, handling and taking wildlife requires a permit issued by the US Fish and Wildlife Service or state wildlife agencies. These methods are more frequently employed by WS personnel since they require professional skills and knowledge, permits, special certifications or authorizations, and because most members of the public prefer that wildlife management professionals take these types of actions.