Development of Injectable and Oral Contraceptive Technologies and Their Assessment for Wildlife Population and Disease Management
may offer a way to limit Canada goose populations. It is a compound
traditionally used on broiler chickens to prevent the disease coccidiosis,
but decreased egg production and hatching rates occur as side effects.
It appears that one mechanism by which nicarbazin exerts its effect
on reduced viability of eggs is by causing disruption of the yolk membrane,
allowing the yolk and albumin to flow together and creating conditions
under which the embryo cannot develop.
Bait development followed the identification of nicarbazin as a promising
avian infertility agent. Any nicarbazin bait must have the following
Highly palatable to Canada geese so that they continue to consume
bait even when the grass “greens” in the spring, which
typically coincides with the start of the breeding season
Able to stand up to harsh conditions, such as heat, cold, or precipitation,
in the field without breaking down.
Right size, color, etc. to help minimize consumption by nontarget
species, such as songbirds and mammals.
Able to reduce egg-laying but not eliminate it, as laying eggs
will keep the female Canada goose incubating the nest instead of re-nesting
in an area where she would not continue to consume the contraceptive
Contain a high enough concentration of nicarbazin required to affect
hatchability, even with the reduced drug absorption seen in Canada
OvoControl-G® is a semi-soft, wheat-based, extruded bread bait
developed by Innolytics, LLC (Long Valley, NJ) . OvoControl-G® bait
is now registered with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency as a
reproductive inhibitor for use in Canada geese. Because nicarbazin is
now registered, current work under this project primarily involves education