Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972
SEC. 304 [16 U.S.C. 1453] Definitions
For the purposes of this title --
(1) The term "coastal zone" means the coastal waters (including the lands
therein and thereunder) and the adjacent shorelands (including the waters
therein and thereunder), strongly influenced by each other and in proximity
to the shorelines of the several coastal states, and includes islands, transitional
and intertidal areas, salt marshes, wetlands, and beaches. The zone extends,
in Great Lakes waters, to the international boundary between the United States
and Canada and, in other areas, seaward to the outer limit of the outer limit
of State title and ownership under the Submerged Lands Act (43 USC 1301 et
seq.), the Act of March 2, 1917 (48 USC 749), the Covenant to Establish a
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands in Political Union with the
United States of America, as approved by the Act of March 24, 1976 (48 USC
1681 note), or section 1 of the Act of November 20, 1963 (48 USC 1705), as
applicable. The zone extends inland from the shorelines only to the extent
necessary to control shorelands, the uses of
which have a direct and significant impact on the coastal waters. Excluded
from the coastal zone are lands the use of which is by law subject solely
to the discretion of or which is held in trust by the Federal Government,
its officers or agents and to control those geographical areas which are
likely to be affected by or vulnerable to sea level rise.
(2) The term "coastal resource of national significance" means any coastal
wetland, beach, dune, barrier island, reef, estuary, or fish and wildlife
habitat, if any such area is determined by a coastal state to be of substantial
biological or natural storm protective value.
(3) The term "coastal waters" means (A) in the Great Lakes area, the waters
within the territorial jurisdiction of the United States consisting of the
Great Lakes, their connecting waters, harbors, roadsteads, and estuary-type
areas such as bays, shallows, and marshes and (B) in other areas, those waters,
adjacent to the shorelines, which contain a measurable quantity or percentage
of sea water, including, but not limited to, sounds, bays, lagoons, bayous,
ponds, and estuaries.
(4) The term "coastal state" means a state of the United States in, or bordering
on, the Atlantic, Pacific, or Arctic Ocean, the Gulf of Mexico, Long Island
Sound, or one or more of the Great Lakes. For the purposes of this title,
the term also includes Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, the Commonwealth
of the Northern Mariana Islands, and the Trust Territories of the Pacific
Islands, and American Samoa.
(5) The term "coastal energy activity" means any of the following activities
if, and to the extent that (A) the conduct, support, or
facilitation of such activity requires and involves the siting, construction,
expansion, or operation of any equipment or facility; and (B) any technical
requirement exists which, in the determination of the Secretary, necessitates
that the siting, construction, expansion, or operation of such equipment
or facility be carried out in, on in close proximity to, the coastal zone
of any coastal state;
(i) Any outer Continental Shelf energy activity.
(ii) Any transportation, conversion, treatment, transfer, or storage of
liquefied natural gas.
(iii) Any transportation, transfer, or storage of oil, natural gas, or
coal (including, but not limited to, by means of any deep-water port, as
defined in section 3(10) of the Deepwater Port Act of 1974 (33 USC 1502(10))).
For purposes of this paragraph, the siting, construction, expansion, or operation
of any equipment or facility shall be "in close proximity to the
coastal zone of any coastal state if such siting, construction, expansion,
or operation has, or is likely to have, a significant effect on such coastal
(6) The term "energy facilities" means any equipment or facility which is
or will be used primarily--
(A) in the exploration for, or the development, production, conversion,
storage, transfer, processing, or transportation of, any energy resource;
(B) for the manufacture, production, or assembly of equipment, machinery,
products, or devices which are involved in any activity described in subparagraph
The term includes, but is not limited to (i) electric generating plants;
(ii) petroleum refineries and associated facilities; (iii) gasification
plants; (iv) facilities used for the transportation, conversion, treatment,
transfer, or storage of liquefied natural gas; (v) uranium enrichment or
nuclear fuel processing facilities; (vi) oil and gas facilities, including
platforms, assembly plants, storage depots, tank farms, crew and supply
bases, and refining complexes; (vii) facilities including deepwater ports,
for the transfer of petroleum; (viii) pipelines and transmission facilities;
and (ix) terminals which are associated with any of the foregoing.
(6a) The term "enforceable policy' means State policies which are legally
binding through constitutional provisions, laws, regulations, land use plans,
ordinances, or judicial or administrative decisions, by which a State exerts
control over private and public land and water uses and natural resources
in the coastal zone.
(7) The term "estuary" means that part of a river or stream or other body
of water having unimpaired connection with the open sea, where the sea water
is measurably diluted with fresh water derived from land drainage. The term
includes estuary-type areas of the Great Lakes.
(8) The term "estuarine sanctuary" means a research area which may include
any part or all of an estuary and any island, transitional area, and upland
in, adjoining, or adjacent to such estuary, and which constitute to the extent
feasible a natural unit, set aside to provide scientists and students the
opportunity to examine over a period of time the ecological relationships
within the area.
(9) The term "Fund" means the Coastal Energy Impact Fund established by
(10) The term "land use" means activities which are conducted in, or on
the shorelands within, the coastal zone, subject to the requirements outlined
in section 307(g).
(11) The term "local government" means any political, subdivision of, or
any special entity created by, any coastal state which (in whole or part)
is located in, or has authority over, such state's coastal zone and which
(A) has authority to levy taxes, or to establish and collect user fees, or
(B) provides any public facility or public service which is financed in whole
or part by taxes or user fees. The term includes, but is not limited to,
any school district, fire district, transportation authority, and any other
special purpose district or authority.
(12) The term "management program" includes, but is not limited to, a comprehensive
statement in words, maps, illustrations, or other media of communication,
prepared and adopted by the state in accordance with the provisions of this
title, setting forth objectives, policies, and standards to guide public
and private uses of lands and waters in the coastal zone.
(13) The term "outer continental shelf energy activity" means
any exploration for, or any development or production of, oil or natural
gas from the outer continental shelf (as defined in section 2(a) of the Outer
Continental Shelf Lands Act (43 USC 1331(a)), or the siting, construction,
expansion, or operation of any new or expanded energy facilities directly
required by such exploration, development, or production.
(14) The term "person" means any individual; any corporation,
partnership, association, or other entity organized or existing under the
laws of any state; the Federal Government; any state, regional, or local
government; or any entity of any such Federal, state, regional, or local
(15) The term "public facilities and public services" means
facilities or services which are financed, in whole or in part, by any state
or political subdivision thereof, including, but not limited to, highways
and secondary roads, parking, mass transit, docks, navigation aids, fire
and police protection, water supply, waste collection and treatment (including
drainage), schools and education, and hospitals and health care. Such term
may also include any other facility or service so financed which the Secretary
finds will support increased population.
(16) The term "Secretary" means the Secretary of Commerce.
(17) The term "special area management plan' means a comprehensive
plan providing for natural resource protection and reasonable coastal-dependent
economic growth containing a detailed and comprehensive statement of policies;
standards and criteria to guide public and private uses of lands and waters;
and mechanisms for timely implementation in specific geographic areas within
the coastal zone.
(18) The term "water use" means a use, activity, or project
conducted in or on waters within the coastal zone.
January 22, 2009