Upon entry into the united States, the seed of imported rice accessions is inspected and hot water treated (56 C, 15 min) by the APHIS inspector at the Plant Inspection Station. Dried and repackaged seed, which serves as the parental seed, is released to the rice crop manager. For each accession, thirty seeds are dehulled and surface sterilized in a 3:10 dilution of commercial bleach (available as 5.25% sodium hypochlorite) for 2 hours. After rinsing in sterile deionized water, seed is grown in tissue culture medium (PDA + 0.5X MS) for 2-3 weeks then transferred into pots in the greenhouses to produce next generation progeny. Plants are inspected visually by APHIS inspectors at least once during their growing cycle, and at least once as seed heads ripen (Before harvesting, the rice plants and panicles are checked) for pathogens/diseases. Seed from accessions that remain free of observable pests of quarantine significance are then released and shipped to the importer. This typically takes less than 1 year.