Methodologies used for quarantine testing range from graft bioassays on field and/or greenhouse indicators to molecular laboratory tests such as nucleic acid hybridizations and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Thus, the quarantine period for pome species is usually 3-5 years. Germplasm in quarantine can be obtained through a provisional release if preliminary tests indicate an absence of the common latent viruses, apple proliferation/pear decline phytoplasmas, and apple scar skin/pear blister canker viroids. Items become unconditionally released (final release) upon duplication of these tests and additional testing in field indicators. Provisional releases are granted under conditions prescribed by the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) and the state regulatory authorities of the state in which the recipient is located.