Swine influenza is a respiratory disease of swine caused by multiple subtypes of type A influenza viruses. SIV in swine is not a reportable or regulated animal disease in the United States. The virus is endemic in swine populations in North and South America, Asia, and Europe. The influenza virus genome consists of eight distinct gene segments and the subtypes of viruses are generally described by the characterization of two gene segments, the hemagglutinun (HA) gene and neuraminidase (NA) gene. Classic SIV infection was caused by the H1N1 subtype and remained relatively unchanged while circulating in U.S. swine populations for over 75 years. Since 1998, SIV infections in the United States have evolved from a seasonal disease caused by a single, relatively stable H1N1 genotype to an endemic year-round respiratory disease caused by multiple genetically unstable SIV subtypes (H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2). USDA APHIS VS' national SIV surveillance program monitors genetic changes in endemic, emerging, and novel influenza virus isolates from pigs exhibiting influenza-like illness.
Pseudorabies (also known as Aujesky's disease or "mad itch") is a viral disease most prevalent in swine, often causing newborn piglets to die. Older pigs can survive infection, becoming carriers of the pseudorabies virus for life. Other animals infected from swine die from pseudorabies. Infected cattle and sheep can first show signs of pseudorabies by scratching and biting themselves. In dogs and cats, pseudorabies can cause sudden death. The virus does not cause illness in humans.
Classical Swine Fever
Classical Swine Fever (CSF) is a highly contagious viral disease that affects swine. Once called hog cholera, CSF has been eradicated from many developed nations. The Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) in cooperation with the National Animal Health Laboratory Network (NAHLN) oversees and implements the National Classical Swine Fever Surveillance Program. This program is designed to rapidly detect the introduction of CSF virus into US swine. Developed in 2005 under the direction of the National Surveillance Unit, this surveillance program is part of the national effort to provide effective surveillance. It provides for the rapid detection of CSF brought into this country either accidentally, or as an act of bioterrorism. Select the links below for a detailed description of the surveillance program, targeted sampling populations and disease information.
Swine brucellosis is a contagious, infectious, and communicable diseases of swine caused by Brucella suis ( B. suis) biovars 1 or 3.
Trichinae Herd Certification Program
The Trichinella herd certification program provides a mechanism for ensuring the quality and safety of animal-derived food products from the farm through slaughter. Control of Trichinella infection in U.S. pork has traditionally been accomplished by individual slaughter inspection of carcasses or by post-slaughter processing requirements. This program certifies pork production sites following production practices that reduce, eliminate, or avoid the risk of animal exposure to Trichinella. The regulations promulgated for this program are currently under review to ensure that they align with the 2014 Farm Bill and continue to support export of swine and swine products.
Swine Health Protection Act
The Swine Health Protection Act (SHPA) regulates food waste containing any meat products fed to swine. Compliance with this act ensures that all food waste fed to swine is properly treated to kill disease organisms. Raw meat may transmit numerous infectious or communicable diseases to swine. Raw meat can transmit exotic animal diseases such as foot-and-mouth disease, African swine fever, classical swine fever, and swine vesicular disease. In accordance with the SHPA and Federal regulations, food waste containing meat may only be fed to swine if it has been treated to kill disease organisms. The links below contain information on the SHPA, regulations, participating states, cooking standards and licensing procedures.