CEI LogoFoot and Mouth Disease, Argentina

Impact Worksheet, August 2000


Summary:
A serologic diagnosis of Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) in cattle in Argentina was reported to the OIE on August 10, 2000. Clinical signs of FMD were not apparent in any of the bovines. The locations included municipalities (Clorinda, Mercedes, and Concepcion del Uruguay) in three provinces near the borders with Paraguay, Uruguay, and southern Brazil. Over 3,600 cattle have been depopulated in the three locations.

FMD Argentina

Argentina is the world's 4th largest producer of beef and veal producing nearly 5 percent of total world production. Argentina was the tenth largest exporter of bovine meat in 1998. Argentina is also the 5th largest producer of cattle hides in the world.

As of August 2000, Argentina was not considered by the USDA to be free of FMD, however, the US was considering a request by Argentina to be recognized as free of FMD without vaccination in light of Argentina having met OIE requirements for such a declaration earlier this year. Beginning in 1997, fresh (chilled or frozen) beef from Argentina could be exported to the US under specified conditions. From January - May 2000, the US imported fresh (chilled or frozen) beef; prepared meat, offal, blood, sausage; cheese and curd; and smaller quantities of other animal products from Argentina. These animal product imports are generally subject to specific conditions for importation which, if carried out properly, reduce the risk of introducing FMD.

On 28 June 2000, APHIS issued an interim rule prohibiting the importation of parts of bovine heads, feet, hooves, and internal organs from Argentina. On August 10, 2000, Argentina voluntarily suspended certification of fresh, chilled, and frozen beef exports to the United States, Canada, Central America, the Caribbean, and Venezuela. USDA, APHIS also placed a temporary hold on imports from Argentina.

How extensive is the situation in the affected country and what was the countryís disease status prior to the outbreak?

A serologic diagnosis of Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) in cattle in Argentina was reported to the OIE by the National Service of Agrifood Health and Quality (SENASA) Central Laboratory on August 10, 2000. Clinical signs of FMD were not apparent in any of the bovines. The locations include three different provinces:

(1) In Formosa province, district of Clorinda, ten bovines were imported illegally. Four of the ten bovines were serologically positive for FMD virus when tested on 2 August 2000. Subsequently, 1,300 other bovines from the recipient herd in Clorinda were stamped out after 8 of the herdís 82 bovines became seropositive for FMD virus.

(2) In Corrientes province, bovines from a shipment that had been delivered to the department of Mercedes were seropositive for FMD. The seropositive bovines and 1,608 other bovines from this recipient herd were stamped out.

(3) In Entre Rios province, bovines from a shipment that had been delivered to the department of Concepcion del Uruguay were also seropositive for FMD. These seropositive bovines and 700 other bovines from this recipient herd were stamped out.

In these three provinces, the disease situation is being controlled through border controls, tracing, restricted movements, stamping-out, monitoring, surveillance, and zoning procedures. Argentina has banned importation from Paraguay of products susceptible to FMD, and is proceeding with "disinfection of trucks and vehicles and the control of passengers."

Prior to the current situation, Argentina had successfully met OIE requirements to be recognized as FMD free without vaccination.

Source: OIE, 11 August 2000; ProMed submission from Argentina Secretariat of Agriculture, Livestock, Fisheries and Food, 10 August 2000; US Code of Federal Regulations, Vol. 9, Part 94.21, AgWorldwide News report 11 August 2000; USDA-APHIS staff in Riverdale MD.

What is the countryís production and trade in affected animals and animal products?

Argentina is the fifth largest producer of cattle in the world. At 55 million head, 1999 production was over 4 percent of world production. Production levels for other relevant species were much lower. Argentina does minimal amounts of trade in live animals as seen in Table A.

Table A: Stocks and Trade in Live Animals, Argentina

Live Animal

1999 Stocks

Trade

     

1998 Exports

1998 Imports

 

Head

% World

Head

% World

Head

% World

Cattle

55,000,000

4.1

10,222

0.1

21,602

0.3

Sheep

14,000,000

1.3

4

< 0.1

31,818

0.2

Goats

3,428,000

0.5

0

0

929

< 0.1

Pigs

3,200,000

0.3

1,169

< 0.1

2,974

< 0.1

Argentina is the fourth largest producer of beef and veal in the world, having produced over 2.5 million metric tons in 1999. This was almost 5 percent of world production. Argentina was the tenth largest exporter of bovine meat in 1998, exporting almost 250,000 metric tons, which was 3.6 percent of the world export market. Production of hides and skins was just over 400,000 metric tons in 1999, equivalent to over 4 percent of world production. Cattle hides made up 95 percent of this production, making Argentina the fifth largest producer of cattle hides in the world. As seen in Table B, Argentina is a small producer and exporter of other relevant animal products. Argentina is a relatively small importer of meat and animal products.

Table B: Production and Trade in Relevant Products, Argentina

Products

1999 Production

Trade

     

1998 Exports

1998 Imports

 

Metric ton

% World

Metric ton

% World

Metric ton

% World

Bovine meat

2,650,000

4.7

249,418

3.6

31,596

0.5

Pig meat

155,611

0.2

1,420

< 0.1

62,017

1

Ovine meat

45,000

0.6

652

< 0.1

1,905

0.2

Goat meat

7,260

0.2

0

0

0

0

Milk, total

9,750,000

1.7

988,057

1.5

83,857

0.1

Hides and skins

400,670

4.1

2,903

0.1

5,575

0.2

Source: UN Food and Agriculture Organization

What are the US imports of affected animals or animal products from the country?

As of August 2000, Argentina was not considered by the USDA to be free of FMD, however, the US was considering a request by Argentina to be recognized as free of FMD without vaccination in light of Argentina having met OIE requirements for such a declaration earlier this year. Beginning in 1997 fresh (chilled or frozen) beef from Argentina could be exported to the US under a set of specific conditions related to animal movement, region of origin, FMD activity, vaccination, treatment of the meat, and certified meat inspection. On 28 June 2000, APHIS issued an interim rule prohibiting the importation from Argentina of parts of bovine heads, feet, hooves, and internal organs. This action was deemed necessary when it became apparent that items were being imported from Argentina which were never intended under the 1997 rule.

Recent US imports from Argentina (Table C) include a variety of products which could pose an FMD risk if import conditions are not carried out properly. The two highest volume imports in 1999 and 2000 have been frozen beef and prepared meat, offal, blood, sausage. Fresh/chilled beef and cheese and curd were the next highest in import volume and dollar value.

Table C: US Imports of Animal Products from Argentina

Product

1999

2000 (January - May)

 

$ value (million)

quantity

$ value (million)

quantity

Bovine semen

0

0

0.11

No quantity given

Beef, frozen

40.2

21,779,411 kg

16.5

8,418,181 kg

Beef, fresh/chilled

13.5

3,223,413 kg

8.2

2,279,107 kg

Edible animal offal (bovine), fresh or frozen

1.1

460,155 kg

2.2

640,438 kg

Meat & offal, dried, salted (bovine)

0.02

1,185 kg

0

0

Prepared meat, offal, blood, sausage

73.4

20,089,123 kg

25.1

6,839,553 kg

Cheese & curd

22.9

6,697,672 kg

7

2,127,325 kg

Milk, cream, concentrates, powders

0.01

8,622 kg

0.02

6,000 kg

Whey, other milk products

0

0

0.06

19,000 kg

Butter

0.23

174,493 kg

0

0

Hides & skins, raw, not tanned, bovine

0.02

10 number

314 kg

0.24

3,850 number

0

Hides & skins, raw, not tanned, goat or sheep

0

0

0.001

28 number

Wool, shorn, greasy

0.25

111,552 cyk

0

0

Animal guts, bladders, stomachs and parts

0.41

186,533 kg

0.24

102,960 kg

Animal feed preparations (not dog or cat food)

0.03

12,070 kg

0

0

Source: World Trade Atlas, US Dept. of Commerce

What is the level of passenger traffic arriving in the United States from the affected country?

A total of 502,183 passengers arrived in the US on direct flights from Argentina in 1998. This number does not include passengers who arrived in the US from Argentina via indirect flights. About 3,000 direct flights, or about 8 flights per day, arrive to the US from Argentina.

As part of APHIS-PPQís agriculture quarantine inspection monitoring, 1227 air passengers from Argentina were sampled for items of agricultural interest in fiscal 1999. Forty-three (43) of these passengers were carrying a total of 49 kg of restricted items, such as cheese or meat, that could potentially harbor the FMD virus. Seven (7) of the passengers with restricted items reported plans to visit or work on a ranch or farm while in the US. Florida, Iowa, and Washington were their reported destinations.

Source: US Department of Transportation, and APHIS-PPQ Agricultural Quarantine Inspection data base

CEIís plans for follow up:

CEI has no further activity planned regarding the Argentinian situation. If you seek more information or wish to comment on this worksheet, contact Carol Tuszynski at (970) 490-7893 or Ken Geter at (970) 490-7817.