Summary: A laboratory confirmed outbreak of FMD type O, was reported on the Philippine island of Panay on September 17, 1999. The outbreak has affected one commercial swine operation (140 sows), one stock yard, and two backyard farms. The subtype is yet to be determined. The last FMD outbreak in the Philippines that was reported to the OIE was in 1976. However, the U.S. had not officially recognized the Philippines as FMD-free. With over 10 million pigs, the Philippines's national pig herd is substantial in world market terms; in comparison, Denmark had just over 11 million pigs in 1997. The Philippines is not a significant exporter of pig or bovine products, however, Philippine imports represent a growing market for U.S. producers. Backyard raisers (those having less than 20 head) still dominate the Philippine swine and cattle industries, although commercial farms are on the rise. Import risk to the U.S. is probably nonexistent because only a minuscule quantity of leather is imported here, none of it from swine. The United States imported no live cattle, pigs, sheep, or goats from the Philippines in 1998 or January - June 1999, nor any fresh or frozen meats from these animals. Passenger traffic from the Philippines to the U.S., however, is significant. In 1998, more than one in 10 sampled passengers from the Philippines was found to be carrying a restricted meat or dairy product.
How extensive is the situation in the affected country and what was the country's disease status prior to the outbreak?
A laboratory confirmed outbreak of FMD type O, initially detected on a small pig farm on September 06, 1999, was reported on the Philippine island of Panay on September 17, 1999. The subtype of the virus is yet to be determined. FMD also was diagnosed on one commercial swine operation (n = 140 sows), one stock yard, and another small farm. FMD has not been diagnosed in species other than swine. Movement of incubationary carriers is thought to be the primary risk factor for transmission of the infection. The entire island of Panay has been quarantined. Similarly, various quarantines are being used to control farm-to-farm transmission of FMD. The outbreak also is being managed by vaccination, by slaughtering and incinerating affected animals, and by disinfection of affected premises. Prior to this outbreak, the Philippines was not considered by the U.S. to be free of FMD.
Source: OIE Disease Information Report
What is the country's place in the international market for affected animals and animal products?
With more than 10 million pigs in the Philippines, the national pig herd is substantial in world market terms. In comparison, Denmark had just over 11 million pigs in 1997; Canada had 12 million; and Poland had 18 million. Although pig meat production in the Philippines was not nearly as efficient as in those other countries, the Philippines produces over one million tons of pig meat annually. The Philippines is also a relatively large world producer of goats and goat meat. By contrast, the country is not a significant producer of bovine animals or products.
The Philippines imported relatively small quantities of live pigs and pig meat in 1998. Per capita consumption of pork, however, continues to grow in the Philippines. The country did not export any live bovine, swine or ovine animals from the Philippines, and Philippine exports of relevant animal products were negligible on the world market.
Source: United Nations FAO
What is the country's production and trade in affected animals and animal products?
Live animal stocks in the Philippines in 1998 are shown in table 1. Backyard raisers (those having less than 20 head) still dominate the Philippine swine and cattle industries in 1999. However, more efficient and technologically updated corporate farms gearing up for global competition are expected to grow their market share in coming years.
Table 1: Live Animal Stocks and Meat/Milk Production
in the Philippines, 1998
|Evaporated and condensed||
|Beef and veal||
|Whole milk, evaporated||
|Mutton and lamb||
Philippine livestock imports in 1997 were primarily cattle and pigs (Table 2). More than 99 percent of cattle imported last year were feeder cattle weighing less than 300 kilograms, and almost all came from Australia. All swine imported during the year were purebred breeders. The U.S. has been projected to emerge as the dominant supplier of live swine in 1999 due to less competition.
Table 2: Live Cattle and Pig Imports in the Philippines,
|United States, Australia|
|Australia (98 percent of market), Indonesia, Bulgaria, Argentina|
In 1998, the Philippines imported about 7,000 tons of pork primarily from Canada (3,121 tons), the U.S. (1,034 tons), Denmark (980 tons) Australia, France, China and Belgium. Beef and veal imports totaled almost 52,000 tons last year. India (21,000 tons) and Australia (20,000 tons) supplied 79 percent of that market.
As of 1997, the Philippines was not an exporter of any cloven-hoofed animals. The country exported minuscule quantities of relevant animal products to countries other than the U.S. These products included bovine meat, beef preparations, milk, cheese and curd, processed cheese, wool grease, and animal oil or fat.
Source: United Nations FAO; and USDA Foreign Agricultural Service
What are the U.S. imports of affected animals or animal products from the country?
The United States imported no live cattle, pigs, sheep, or goats from the Philippines in 1998 or January - June 1999, nor any fresh or frozen meats from these animals. The U.S. did import small quantities of hides and skins (Table 3).
Table 3: U.S. Imports of Relevant Animal Products
from the Philippines, 1998-99
|Buffalo leather, parchment- dressed (sq m)|
|Sheep and lamb leather, parchment dressed (sq m)|
|Goat and kidskin leather, pretanned, hairless (sq m)|
Source: World Trade Atlas
What is the level of passenger traffic arriving in the United States from the affected country?
In 1997, about 381,000 passengers arrived in the U.S. on direct flights from the Philippines. More passengers arrived on non-direct flights.
The Agricultural Quarantine Inspection (AQI) Monitoring Program conducted by USDA, APHIS, PPQ found 139 of the 1,322 sampled airline passengers arriving in the U.S. from the Philippines during the period 10/1/97 through 9/30/98 to be carrying a meat or dairy product, including pork, beef, sausage, or cheese. Further, 399 of the 1,322 sampled passengers (30 percent) from the Philippines were found to be carrying either a restricted animal or plant product. The AQI numbers are one indication of the amount of restricted agricultural products (of interest) illegally entering the U.S. via airline passengers. The top destinations reported by the 1,332 sampled passengers were NY, MI, HI, CA, MN and WA. None of those passengers who carried meat or dairy products had declared an intention to visit or work on a farm or ranch while in the U.S.
Source: USDA/APHIS Agricultural Quarantine Inspection data base; U.S. Department of Transportation
CEI's interpretation: The U.S. imports only minuscule quantities of relevant products from the Philippines, and the Philippines is not a significant exporter of swine, bovine or ovine products to U.S. trade partners. Therefore, trade risk to the U.S. is probably nonexistent. In the Philippines, pork is the meat of choice for most consumers, and if the outbreak worsened then U.S. export potential to the Philippines could potentially increase. Passenger traffic from the Philippines to the U.S. is also significant, and it is noteworthy that more than one in 10 sampled passengers from the Philippines was carrying a restricted meat or dairy product.
CEI's plans for follow up: The CEI does not currently plan to produce more information on this outbreak, unless the outbreak intensifies or spreads. If you seek more information or wish to comment on this worksheet, please reply via e-mail or telephone David Cummings at 970- 490-7895 or Reginald Johnson at 970-490-7896.
Prepared by: Center for Emerging Issues, Centers for Epidemiology and Animal Health